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Wednesday, February 15, 2023
HomeNewsViaBTC Capital|The Collapse of LUNA

ViaBTC Capital|The Collapse of LUNA


Timeline of the Collapse:

-In the early morning of May 8, to arrange for the 4Crv Pool, Luna Foundation Guard (LFG), a Singapore-based non-profit that maintains the Terra community, eliminated $150 million price of UST from the UST-3Crv Pool. At this time, the TVL of the pool was round $700 million. In different phrases, it price solely about $300 million to empty this pool.

– To maintain the steadiness of liquidity within the UST-3Crv Pool, LFG eliminated one other $100 million price of UST from the pool.

– On the night of May 8, WhaleTrades, a whale alert account on Twitter, started to “ring alarm bells” frantically: there was a tweet of promoting hundreds of thousands of {dollars}’ price of UST each hour.

– On the morning of May 10, Jump Trading and LFG could have sensed the issue and stopped promoting their Bitcoin holdings to supply assist for UST’s peg, letting issues drift. As a consequence, UST plummeted all the way in which to $0.6.

– On May 11, UST appeared to be shorted by Soros-style quick sellers, and has plummeted to a minimal of $0.2998 (supply: CMC) after rounds of underselling.

It was a terrifying day on May 11: there appeared to be quick sellers intentionally shorting UST and LUNA:

– While liquidity is being withdrawn from the UST-3Crv Pool as reserves for the 4Crv Pool, a single pockets dumped $350 million price of UST on Curve, making UST lose its peg to the US greenback. In response, LFG bought BTC to maintain the peg, after which the quick vendor dumped the remainder UST on Binance.

– UST was critically depegged, adopted by a run on UST. LFG then got here to the rescue with a plan to lend massive quantities of BTC, solely to trigger a nosedive in BTC. Since new LUNA is minted by burning UST, the provision of LUNA has elevated as a substitute, leading to its droop.

– The revenue from quick positions of BTC and LUNA of the quick vendor is estimated to exceed $1 billion, and the fee, primarily the UST dumped, is estimated to be inside $200 million.

Impact on the LUNA Ecosystem

Considering the shut relationship between initiatives within the Terra ecosystem and LUNA and UST in addition to the reinvestments and earnings of DeFi Legos, the UST depegging has dealt a heavy blow to each the LUNA-margined and UST-margined staking, DeFi, lending, margin, and different protocols and the costs. What’s worse, it even straight triggered the liquidation of protocols, pushing LUNA and UST right into a secondary dying spiral.


1. Anchor

As a decentralized financial savings protocol constructed on the Terra ecosystem, Anchor boasts a secure APY of 20%, which is its most distinguished characteristic.

Influenced by the UST depegging, Anchor’s APY rests at 18.9%, however its whole deposits plummeted to $3.99 billion from $14 billion final Friday, as recommended by Anchor’s Dashboard.

As a complement to the Anchor and Terra ecosystems, Orion.Money is designed to facilitate the conversion of different stablecoins equivalent to USDT and DAI into UST for earnings on financial savings within the Anchor ecosystem. Specifically, buyers stake ORION and luxuriate in appreciable returns with 10%, 15%, and 20% APYs. With the UST depegging, the stablecoin stakings on the Orion protocol have slumped by greater than 50%.


2. Mirror


The artificial belongings in Mirror are all minted with UST as the primary collateral to reflect numerous monetary belongings equivalent to shares and ETFs. Therefore, the funding demand for any U.S. stock-based artificial belongings in Mirror will finally flip into the demand for UST, which creates crucial utilization situation for this stablecoin and offers worth for UST and LUNA.

The TVL of the Terra chain on Mirror fell from $600 million to $240 million, a drop of 60%.

3. Lido and node staking

Lido, the most important liquidity staking protocol, began the Liquid Staking for Terra plan as early as final 12 months, releasing the LUNA staked by nodes within the Terra ecosystem. The LUNA staked on Lido additionally witnessed a drop of about 60% in addition to frantic underselling. As a consequence, the TVL of Terra’s staking in Lido dropped by 80% on May 11 alone, with a seven-day drop of a staggering 91%.

On the opposite hand, node staking straight impacts the verification and safety of the Terra community. For the time being, we haven’t noticed numerous nodes fleeing. Considering the UST depegging, increasingly LUNA might be in circulation, pushing up the provision towards 1 billion.

4. Abracadabra

Abracadabra launched the Degenbox UST technique. Users deposit UST tokens into the cauldron with the intention to both borrow MIM or leverage their place, thereby vastly enhancing returns. As lengthy as UST stays at $1, this technique is mainly risk-free. However, as soon as UST is depegged, customers danger liquidations if their collateral devalues.

Currently, the Abracadabra protocol is transferring all UST from the UST technique on Terra again to Ethereum in response to present market circumstances. It pays extra consideration to liquidity and potential liquidations.

Relevant Reserve Pools

Concerning the dying spiral going through algorithmic stablecoins earlier this 12 months, LFG created a reserve pool of Bitcoin and AVAX to assist the worth peg of the stablecoin UST.

Taking BTC for example, let’s go deep into this mechanism: LFG initially supposed to alleviate the inflationary strain utilizing BTC. When merchants alternate UST to LUNA on the chain, it reduces the brand new provide of LUNA to manage the dying spiral and make the whole system extra proof against dangers. According to the on-chain mechanism proposed by Jump, 1 UST will be exchanged for $0.98 price of BTC. If the UST value is decrease than $0.98 for off-chain trades, merchants can purchase Bitcoin at a reduction from the reserve. Such a variant of the AMM mechanism known as “The Defender”. Before the supply value of UST exceeds $0.98, the perfect place to purchase Bitcoin available in the market is its reserve pool. This mechanism offers a tough assist for the UST’s peg.

Neither BTC nor AVAX might be used as collateral. In truth, making an allowance for the fragility of algorithmic stablecoins, such a brand new mechanism was designed to peg the cash to stabler belongings, which, to a sure extent, certainly hedges towards promoting. Despite the intelligent design, UST/LUNA can’t be redeemed in alternate for bitcoin on the chain in the meanwhile. What’s worse, as UST struggles to take care of its $1 peg, LUNA holders endure a confidence breakdown and get trapped within the dying spiral.

LFG was compelled to dip into its pile of bitcoin to assist the token. According to the report, LFG has lent out $1.3 billion in BTC (28,205 bitcoins) to buying and selling corporations to carry UST’s value peg. But that was only a drop within the bucket. The rising rate of interest and shrinking of steadiness sheet introduced on May 10 have made issues even worse. As the constant influx of established monetary establishments into the crypto market for the latest years brings Bitcoin a lot nearer to the US inventory market, Bitcoin dropped under $30,000 in response to the collapse of the US inventory and LFG’s large loans of bitcoin.

AVAX is one other ecosystem that’s intently associated to Terra. Do Kwon introduced on April 8 that AVAX might be used to supply a reserve towards UST, and crypto customers will be capable of mint UST on Avalanche. This is an try so as to add extra use circumstances of UST by means of the various AVAX-powered initiatives. Meanwhile, the Avalanche ecosystem additionally wants a stablecoin of its personal, which was why the 2 clicked immediately. However, this seemingly good partnership additionally has its pitfalls. The working precept of AVAX and UST, much like that of BTC that we talked about earlier, is to kind a digital AMM pool the place customers who’ve earned UST on Avalanche’s C-Chain can swap $1 price of AVAX for $1 price of UST or convert $1 price of UST into 99 cents’ price of AVAX. It ought to be famous this uneven arbitrage design will solely be tapped into when UST falls.

Fortunately, in the intervening time, AVAX can’t be straight used to mint UST. The AVAX reserve introduced by Do Kwon solely covers the 100 million AVAX acquired by LFG, a transaction that might be dealt with by means of the Avalanche Foundation in an over-the-counter (OTC) vogue. Details (e.g. the existence of any lock-up interval and the particular value) of the deal stay unknown to the general public. Compared to the practically 99% plummet of LUNA, AVAX, which dropped by over 20% in worth as a result of general market impacts, has not been a lot affected. At the identical time, the meltdown sounded the alarm for the whole public chain sector. Do all ecosystems want a stablecoin? NEAR, which launched its ecosystem-based stablecoin USN throughout its infancy, was extra affected than AVAX, and the lack of market confidence led to a downfall.

Other Algorithmic Stablecoins

The disaster of confidence in stablecoins attributable to the collapse of UST has prolonged to different stablecoin protocols, however that is additionally an excellent alternative to check customers’ confidence in different protocols and their underlying mechanisms.

No traces of large-scale depegging have been noticed in decentralized stablecoins (besides fiat-collateralized USDC, USDT, TUSD, and so forth.) earlier than or after the collapse of UST (with the depegging threshold set to five%). An exception is HARD Protocol’s USDX which noticed a drop of about 8%. Even these partially collateralized like FEI and FRAX haven’t suffered extreme depegging.

Unfortunately, UST has destroyed the market confidence in stablecoins, particularly in these algorithmic stablecoins and stablecoin protocols that aren’t absolutely collateralized, e.g. FXS and SPELL.


According to some sources, the LUNA meltdown may very well be masterminded by HF Citadel Securities, suggesting that this well-known Wall Street participant shorted the market by lending out 100,000 bitcoins, which crushed LUNA’s peg mechanism and resulted in a vicious spiral.

Do Kwon first sought assist and tried to boost $1 billion by promoting LUNA at a 50% low cost, however the proposal was rejected.

He then introduced Proposal 1164, which was handed with 35 voting in favor and 4 abstaining. The proposal primarily works to hurry up the burning of UST. More particularly, it should enhance the bottom pool from $50 million to $100 million in SDR and scale back the Pool Recovery Block from 36 blocks to 18, which can enhance UST’s minting capability from $293 million to $1.2 billion.

Massive conventional funds of many large Korean firms are saved at Terra, a Korean firm specializing in fintech and cost, within the type of UST. Such belongings will carry authorized penalties. Compared with LUNA, which largely impacts crypto buyers, UST includes extra funds from non-crypto communities. In comparability, such funds include higher duties and extra demanding authorized provisions. If requested to decide on just one from the 2, LUNA will certainly be given up to make sure the worth of UST. If no exterior funding will be relied on, the one method round is to maintain minting LUNA to burn UST and to transform LUNA into extra worthwhile belongings (BTC/USDT), thereby stabilizing the UST peg. The stabilization of the UST peg through the continued exploitation of LUNA’s worth is the one possible option to save UST. As such, the LUNA value may proceed to fall till the tragedy ends with the assistance of exterior funding.

In a phrase, LUNA has fallen from its pedestal.

As of this writing, the value of LUNA is $0.8, and the UST value is $0.68.

*The above can’t be relied on as any funding recommendation.


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